Urban mining of copper in World War I Austria

Material Flow Analysis (MFA) Diagram
MFA Diagram
Source: Manfred Klinglmair, 2010. Urban Mining In Times Of Severe Raw Material Shortage: Copper Management In World War I Austria.

The above MFA methodology and MFA diagram show recovery of copper from within urban metabolism in the Austrian economy during World War I, when raw materials indeed had to be substituted by secondary sources to a wide extent.

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