Industrial symbiosis in Russia

Source: Olli Salmi, 2006. Eco-efficiency and industrial symbiosis – a counterfactual analysis of a mining community.

This MFA pertains to a non-realized industrial symbiosis project planned for the Russian Kola Science Center in mid-1980, in which the author investigates what may have been the benefit of the symbiotic system.  What is interesting about the specific methodology of this MFA is that several different materials are considered simultaneously in the various flows.  For example, one flow is “phosphate” while another is “cement”.  While the author does not go so far as to include energy flows in addition, it is noticeably different than single-material MFAs.

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